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Grand Duke Cosimo tried to get his son international recognition as heir-apparent, to no avail. The Treaties of Nijmegen , which concluded the Franco-Dutch War , did not rubber stamp Cosimo's ambitions, as he had wished.

The Lorrainer question was concluded with the birth of a son to Charles V in , ending Cosimo's dream of a Medici cadet branch, dreams which were to be revived in by Gian Gastone's marriage to an heiress.

Cosimo kept himself apprised of his wife's conduct in France through the Tuscan emissary, Gondi. The Grand Duchess had placed her pet dog's basket in close proximity to the fire, and the basket burst into flames, but instead of trying to extinguish it, she urged her fellow nuns to flee for their lives.

On previous occasions, she had explicitly stated that she would burn down the convent if the Abbess disagreed with her, too, making the Abbess view the accident as an intentional.

Another scandal erupted that summer, the Grand Duchess bathed nude, as was the custom, in a local river. Cosimo exploded with anger upon hearing of this.

At first, he resisted, but then sent a consignment of munitions to Trieste , and offered to join the Holy League.

To Cosimo's dismay, "many scandals and disorders continued to occur in the matter of carnal intercourse between Jews and Christian women, and especially putting their children out to be suckled by Christian nurses.

Cosimo went about arranging a marriage for his elder son, Ferdinando, in He ushered him into the marriage as the other Tuscan princes, Francesco Maria de' Medici and Gian Gastone de' Medici , were sickly and unlikely to produce children.

Negotiations with the Portuguese were intense, but stalled over certain clauses: Cosimo's eyes now fell upon Violente of Bavaria. Choosing her would strengthen ties between France—where Violente's sister was the dauphine—and Bavaria.

There was only one obstacle in the way, Ferdinando II, Cosimo's father, impartially advised Violente's father, Ferdinand Maria , to invest a huge sum into a bank.

Soon after the Elector deposited the sum, the bank collapsed. Ferdinando was unimpressed with his wife.

Violente, however, electrified the Grand Duke. He wrote, "I have never known, nor do I think the world can produce, a disposition so perfect The Emperor, anxious to avoid friction, suggested that Anna Maria Luisa should marry the Elector Palatine to compensate for the affront.

Cosimo, after much coaxing, persuaded him otherwise. Tuscany was not alone in its feudal ties to the Empire: The rest of Italy was also bound to pay the Emperor, but at a much higher magnitude than Cosimo, who merely paid on his few undisputed Imperial fiefs.

Cosimo, not having much else to do, instituted more moral laws. Young men were not allowed to "enter into houses to make love to girls, and let them dally at doors and windows, is a great incentive to rapes, abortions, and infanticides Harold Acton recounts that a bale of wool "sent from Leghorn and Cortona had to pass through ten intermediate customs.

Evening permits and exemptions were available for those willing to pay six crowns per month. Cosimo resurrected a law from the regency of his father which banned Students from attending college outside Tuscany, thus strengthening the Jesuits' hold on education.

Ferdinando and Violante, despite being married for over five years, had not produced any offspring as of The Grand Duke responded by declaring special days of devotion, and erecting a "fertility column" in the Cavour district of Florence, an act which attracted popular ridicule.

The same year, Dowager Grand Duchess Vittoria , who had once exercised great deal of influence over Cosimo, died. Her allodial possessions, the Duchies of Montefeltro and Rovere, inherited from her grandfather, the last Duke of Urbino, were bestowed upon her younger son, Francesco Maria de' Medici.

Cosimo became perturbed by the question of the Tuscan Succession following the death of his mother. Ferdinando was lacking any children, as was Anna Maria Luisa.

The latter, who was high in her father's estimation, put forward a German princess to marry Gian Gastone. Cosimo once again dreamed of a Medici cadet branch in a foreign land.

They were married on 2 July Gian Gastone and herself did not get along; he eventually abandoned her in The 17th century did not end well for the Grand Duke: Delighted by his warm reception from the Roman people, Cosimo left Rome with a fragment of Saint Francis Xavier 's bowels.

Carlos II of Spain died in November His death, without any ostensible heir, brought about the War of the Spanish Succession , which involved all of the European powers.

Tuscany, however, remained neutral. Gian Gastone was consuming money at a rapid pace in Bohemia, wracking up titanic debts. Her confessor, hoping to keep her in Bohemia, regaled her with tales of the " poisoned " Eleanor of Toledo and Isabella Orsini , other Medici consorts.

Cosimo's piety had not faded in the slightest since his youth. He visited the Florentine Convent of Saint Mark on a daily basis. He was still trying to coax Anna Maria Franziska to Florence, where he believed her caprices would cease.

His successor, Joseph I , took to government with a burst of ebullience. Following the Battle of Turin , a decisive Imperial victory, the Emperor sent an envoy to Florence to collect feudal dues, amounting to , doubloons , an exorbitant sum; and to force Cosimo to recognise the Archduke Charles as King of Spain.

The Grand Prince Ferdinando was grievously ill with syphilis ; he had become prematurely senile, not recognising anybody who came to see him. He sent the Archbishop of Prague to reproach her.

She cited the example of Marguerite-Louise, adding that the Pope did not bother himself to machinate a reconciliation.

Gian Gastone arrived in Tuscany, without his wife, in Cosimo, in an act of desperation, had Francesco Maria, the Medici family cardinal, renounce his religious vows and marry Eleanor of Gonzaga , the youngest child of the incumbent Duke of Guastalla.

Two years later, Francesco Maria died, taking with him any hope of an heir. Without any ostensible heir, Cosimo contemplated restoring the Republic of Florence.

Florence was nominally an Imperial fief, and Siena a Spanish one. Cosimo and herself were abhorred by his reply.

Realising how unforthcoming he had been, Charles wrote to Florence agreeing to the project, mentioning but one clause: An inaction he would later grow to lament.

The Grand Prince finally succumbed to syphilis on 30 October Cosimo deposited a succession bill in the Senate, Tuscany's nominal legislature, on 26 November.

The bill promulgated that if Gian Gastone predeceased the Electress Palatine, she should ascend to all the states of the Grand Duchy.

It was greeted with a standing ovation by the senators. Charles VI was furious. He retorted that the Grand Duchy was an Imperial fief, and that he alone had the prerogative to choose who would succeed.

Elisabeth Farnese , heiress to the Duchy of Parma and the second wife of Philip V of Spain, as a great-granddaughter of Margherita de' Medici , exercised a claim to Tuscany.

In May , the Emperor assured the Electress and the Grand Duke that there was no insurmountable obstacle preventing her accession, but that Austria and Tuscany must soon reach an agreement regarding which royal house which was to succeed the Medici.

Charles VI's promises never materialised. In he repudiated Cosimo's decision, declaring a union between Tuscany and Modena the Este lands unacceptable.

By the Electress was not even acknowledged as heiress, and Cosimo was reduced to spectator at the conferences for Tuscany's future.

Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine died in June Anna Maria Luisa returned home in October , bringing with her vast treasures. Cosimo created his elder son's widow, Violante of Bavaria , Governess of Siena as to clearly define her precedence.

That did not stop the two ladies from quarrelling, as was his intention. He accidentally shot, and killed, a man. He was so distraught, that he wished to be tried by the Knights of the Order of Saint Stephen.

On 22 September the Grand Duke experienced a two-hour-long fit of trembling. His condition steadily deteriorated.

Cosimo was attended by the Papal nuncio and the Archbishop of Pisa on his death bed. The latter pronounced "that this Prince required little assistance in order to die well, for he had studied and cared for nothing else throughout the long course of his life, but to prepare himself for death.

Six days later, on All Hallow's Eve, he died. Cosimo III left a Tuscany one of the poorest nations in Europe; the treasury empty and the people weary of religious bigotry, the state itself was reduced to a gaming chip in European affairs.

Among his enduring edicts is the establishment of the Chianti wine region. Gian Gastone repealed Cosimo's Jewish persecution laws, and eased tariffs and customs.

Cosimo's inability to uphold Tuscany's independence led to the succession of the House of Lorraine upon Gian Gastone's death in Cosimo did not enjoy a harmonious relationship with his elder son, Ferdinando.

They disagreed about Cosimo's bigoted ideology and his monthly allowance. This union was exceedingly discontent, and produced no offspring.

Anna Maria Luisa was the Grand Duke's favourite child. She married Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine , and like her brother, had no issue.

Gian Gastone, Cosimo's eventual successor, despised his father and his court. Stephen Pope and Martyr [85].

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Eleonora di Toledo [92] 4. Christina of Lorraine [88] He also made an alliance with the Sforzas of Milan , who, for gold, provided him with troops.

Cosimo required undivided power in order to carry out his plans as well as to satisfy his passions, above all his passion for building.

Lorenzo and on the Sagresta Vecchia and began work on the strange rotunda of Sta. Under the patronage of Cosimo, Michelozzo also built the convent of S.

Marco, the Medici Chapel at Sta. Croce, and a chapel at S. In addition to architects, Cosimo gathered around him all the masters of an age abounding in geniuses: He not only assured these artists of commissions but also treated them as friends at a time when people still looked upon them as manual workers.

The manuscripts picked up by his agents form the core of the incomparable library that is rather unjustly called the Laurentian Laurenziana , after his grandson.

He opened it to the public and employed copyists in order to disseminate scholarly editions compiled by, among others, the Humanists Poggio and Marsilio Ficino.

In short, he was well prepared for the singular opportunity that came his way in , when he succeeded in enticing the ecumenical council from Ferrara to Florence.

As for Cosimo, he assiduously attended the lectures delivered by the Greek scholars, and at the age of 50 he became an ardent admirer of Plato.

At the same time the University of Florence , with conspicuous success, resumed the teaching of Greek, which had been unknown in the West for years.

Thus Cosimo was one of the mainsprings of Humanism. In Cosimo prematurely lost his brother, who had been his staunchest supporter.

In he had to face the loss of his most gifted son, Giovanni, thus leaving the succession to Piero, born in , who was sickly and almost constantly bedridden.

The following year, the signoria conferred upon him the deserved title of Pater Patriae Father of His Country. We welcome suggested improvements to any of our articles.

You can make it easier for us to review and, hopefully, publish your contribution by keeping a few points in mind.

Your contribution may be further edited by our staff, and its publication is subject to our final approval. Unfortunately, our editorial approach may not be able to accommodate all contributions.

Our editors will review what you've submitted, and if it meets our criteria, we'll add it to the article. Please note that our editors may make some formatting changes or correct spelling or grammatical errors, and may also contact you if any clarifications are needed.

The Editors of Encyclopaedia Britannica. Sep 23, See Article History. Cosimo il Vecchio, Cosimo the Elder.

Learn More in these related Britannica articles: His son Cosimo, who dominated the reggimento principal patrician families from , united his vast financial resources with a keen intelligence.

His natural simplicity of manner and plethora of folksy sayings were well…. The rich library of Lorenzo the Magnificent, grandson of Cosimo and an even greater patron of learning and the arts, also became a public library.

It was opened in…. He amassed a great…. The new learning role in Florence In Florence: The early period In Italy:

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Claude of Valois [93]. His son Cosimo, who dominated the reggimento principal patrician families fromunited his vast financial resources with a keen intelligence. Cosimo required undivided power in order to carry out his plans as well as to satisfy his passions, above all his passion for building. His character was analogous to the Grand Duchess's. The Grand Duke responded by declaring special days of devotion, and erecting a "fertility column" in the Cavour district of Florence, an act which attracted spiel download kostenlos ridicule. He not only assured these artists of commissions magic eye buch also treated them Beste Spielothek in Kastel finden friends at a time when people still looked upon them as manual workers. Eleonora di Toledo [92]. Die Medici4. Pico della Mirandola Marsilio Ficino. Retrieved 29 April His condition steadily deteriorated. The latter got her way. Eine schlechte Nachricht vielleicht zu Beginn: Sie müssen jedoch nicht unbedingt einen Download der Software für den PC durchführen und dementsprechend auch nichts installieren - eine Anmeldung über einen Browser genügt, um zu spielen. Im Grand Mondial Casino spielen Sie sicher und geschützt! Die Internetseite des Casinos Beste Spielothek in Schrannen finden ohne nicht sonderlich seriös, wie eine Schablone, die World Wide Web tausendfach zu finden ist. Das ist zumindest unsere Meinung! Obwohl ich zwischenzeitlich ein recht annehmbares Barguthaben hatte, konnte wie finde ich freunde keine Auszahlung vornehmen.

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His condition steadily deteriorated. Cosimo was attended by the Papal nuncio and the Archbishop of Pisa on his death bed. The latter pronounced "that this Prince required little assistance in order to die well, for he had studied and cared for nothing else throughout the long course of his life, but to prepare himself for death.

Six days later, on All Hallow's Eve, he died. Cosimo III left a Tuscany one of the poorest nations in Europe; the treasury empty and the people weary of religious bigotry, the state itself was reduced to a gaming chip in European affairs.

Among his enduring edicts is the establishment of the Chianti wine region. Gian Gastone repealed Cosimo's Jewish persecution laws, and eased tariffs and customs.

Cosimo's inability to uphold Tuscany's independence led to the succession of the House of Lorraine upon Gian Gastone's death in Cosimo did not enjoy a harmonious relationship with his elder son, Ferdinando.

They disagreed about Cosimo's bigoted ideology and his monthly allowance. This union was exceedingly discontent, and produced no offspring.

Anna Maria Luisa was the Grand Duke's favourite child. She married Johann Wilhelm, Elector Palatine , and like her brother, had no issue.

Gian Gastone, Cosimo's eventual successor, despised his father and his court. Stephen Pope and Martyr [85]. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

Eleonora di Toledo [92] 4. Christina of Lorraine [88] Claude of Valois [93] 2. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor [94] Charles II of Austria [89] Anna of Bohemia and Hungary [94] 5.

Maria Magdalena of Austria [86] Albert V, Duke of Bavaria [95] Maria Anna of Bavaria [89] Anna of Austria [95] 1. Guidobaldo II della Rovere [96] Francesco Maria II della Rovere [90] Vittoria Farnese [96] 6.

Federico Ubaldo della Rovere, Duke of Urbino [87] Ippolito della Rovere [97] Livia della Rovere [90] Isabella Vitelli [97] 3.

Vittoria Della Rovere Claudia de' Medici [87] Dizionario Biografico degli Italiani. Retrieved 19 August Archived from the original PDF on 15 January Grand Dukes of Tuscany.

Alessandro "The Moor" Cosimo I. Filippo Bernardo Antonio Giuliano Zanobi. Genealogical tables of the House of Medici.

Medici fountain Villa di Pratolino. Cappelle medicee The Chapel of Medici di Gragnano. Pico della Mirandola Marsilio Ficino.

Emilio de' Cavalieri Jacopo Peri. Medici giraffe Galilean moons Stories set to music: Retrieved from " https: Views Read Edit View history.

In other projects Wikimedia Commons. This page was last edited on 30 October , at By using this site, you agree to the Terms of Use and Privacy Policy.

Cosimo in granducal robes, with Tuscan regalia. Basilica of San Lorenzo , Tuscany. Full name Cosimo de' Medici. Ferdinando II de' Medici. Eleonora di Toledo [92].

Christina of Lorraine [88]. Claude of Valois [93]. Ferdinand I, Holy Roman Emperor [94]. Charles II of Austria [89].

Anna of Bohemia and Hungary [94]. Maria Magdalena of Austria [86]. Albert V, Duke of Bavaria [95]. Maria Anna of Bavaria [89].

The Medici principate had begun Cosimo traditionally has been accused of destroying Florentine liberties; but these ancient liberties, more of an illusion than a reality, had already ceased to exist in the Florence of the Albizzi.

Cosimo only had to perpetuate the formula of those he was evicting, in other words, to maintain the appearance of a constitutional regime.

But, in order not to be taken by surprise like the Albizzi, he perfected the system. Previously, it was the rule to fill high official positions by drawing lots.

The process was now manipulated so that only the names of men who could be depended upon were drawn. The independent mood of the two municipal assemblies was neutralized by making an exceptional procedure the rule: He also made an alliance with the Sforzas of Milan , who, for gold, provided him with troops.

Cosimo required undivided power in order to carry out his plans as well as to satisfy his passions, above all his passion for building.

Lorenzo and on the Sagresta Vecchia and began work on the strange rotunda of Sta. Under the patronage of Cosimo, Michelozzo also built the convent of S.

Marco, the Medici Chapel at Sta. Croce, and a chapel at S. In addition to architects, Cosimo gathered around him all the masters of an age abounding in geniuses: He not only assured these artists of commissions but also treated them as friends at a time when people still looked upon them as manual workers.

The manuscripts picked up by his agents form the core of the incomparable library that is rather unjustly called the Laurentian Laurenziana , after his grandson.

He opened it to the public and employed copyists in order to disseminate scholarly editions compiled by, among others, the Humanists Poggio and Marsilio Ficino.

In short, he was well prepared for the singular opportunity that came his way in , when he succeeded in enticing the ecumenical council from Ferrara to Florence.

As for Cosimo, he assiduously attended the lectures delivered by the Greek scholars, and at the age of 50 he became an ardent admirer of Plato.

At the same time the University of Florence , with conspicuous success, resumed the teaching of Greek, which had been unknown in the West for years.

Thus Cosimo was one of the mainsprings of Humanism. In Cosimo prematurely lost his brother, who had been his staunchest supporter. Venice sent an envoy to Florence on his behalf and requested that they rescind the order of banishment.

When they refused, Cosimo settled down in Venice, his brother Lorenzo accompanying him. However, prompted by his influence and his money, others followed him, such as the architect Michelozzo , whom Cosimo commissioned to design a library as a gift to the Venetian people.

Cosimo returned a year later, in , to influence the government of Florence especially through the Pitti and Soderini families for the last 30 years of his life of 75 years.

Cosimo's time in exile instilled in him the need to squash the factionalism that resulted in his exile in the first place. In order to do this, he instigated a series of constitutional changes with the help of favorable priors in the Signoria to secure his power through influence.

Following the death of Filippo Maria Visconti , who had ruled the Duchy of Milan from until his death in , Cosimo sent Francesco I Sforza to establish himself in Milan to prevent an impending military advance from the Republic of Venice.

Francesco Sforza was a condottiere , a mercenary soldier who had stolen land from the papacy and proclaimed himself its lord. He had yearned to establish himself at Milan as well, an ambition that was aided by the fact that the current Visconti head lacked legitimate children save for a daughter, Bianca, whom Sforza ultimately married in November after a failed attempt at winning her hand from her father.

The Milanese made a brief attempt at democracy before Sforza was finally acclaimed duke by the city in February In terms of foreign policy, Cosimo worked to create peace in northern Italy through the creation of a balance of power between Florence , Naples , Venice and Milan during the wars in Lombardy between and and the discouragement of outside powers notably the French and the Holy Roman Empire from interfering in Italian affairs.

Only part of the Bardi family were involved in this marriage alliance, for some of the branches considered themselves the opponents of the Medici clan.

Piero the Gouty and Giovanni de' Medici. On his death in at Careggi , Cosimo was succeeded by his son Piero, father of Lorenzo the Magnificent.

After Cosimo's death, the Signoria awarded him the title Pater Patriae , "Father of his Country", an honor once awarded to Cicero , and had it carved upon his tomb in the Church of San Lorenzo.

Cosimo de' Medici used his vast fortune to control the Florentine political system and to sponsor orators, poets and philosophers, [22] as well as a series of artistic accomplishments.

Cosimo was also noted for his patronage of culture and the arts during the Renaissance and spent the family fortune liberally to enrich the civic life of Florence.

According to Salviati 's [ disambiguation needed ] Zibaldone , Cosimo stated: For fifty years, I have done nothing else but earn money and spend money; and it became clear that spending money gives me greater pleasure than earning it.

Cosimo hired the young Michelozzo Michelozzi to create what is today perhaps the prototypical Florentine palazzo , the austere and magnificent Palazzo Medici.

The building still includes, as its only 15th-century interior that is largely intact, the Magi Chapel frescoed by Benozzo Gozzoli , completed in with portraits of members of the Medici family parading through Tuscany in the guise of the Three Wise Men.

His patronage enabled the eccentric and bankrupt architect Brunelleschi to complete the dome of Santa Maria del Fiore the " Duomo " in The History of Italy.

Translated by Sidney Alexander. In , Cosimo de' Medici founded the first public library in Florence, at San Marco , which was of central importance to the humanist movement in Florence during the Renaissance.

It was designed by Michelozzo , a student of Lorenzo Ghiberti who later collaborated with Donatello and was also a good friend and patron to Cosimo.

Cosimo contributed the funds necessary to repair the library and provide it with a book collection, which people were allowed to use at no charge.

He hand-selected those individuals who were given access to this laboratory of learning, and, through this social dynamic, he actively shaped the politics of the Republic.

His first library, however, was designed by Michelozzo while the two were in Venice, where Cosimo had been temporarily exiled. In , in gratitude for the hospitality of that city, he left it as a gift, his only such work outside Florence.

Cosimo had grown up with only three books, but by the time he was thirty, his collection had grown to 70 volumes. After being introduced to humanism by a group of literati who had asked for his help in preserving books, he grew to love the movement and gladly sponsored the effort to renew Greek and Roman civilization through literature, for which book collecting was a central activity.

He financed trips to nearly every European town as well as to Syria, Egypt, and Greece organized by Poggio Bracciolini , his chief book scout.

In the realm of philosophy, Cosimo, influenced by the lectures of Gemistus Plethon , supported Marsilio Ficino and his attempts at reviving Neo-Platonism.

Cosimo certainly had an influence on Renaissance intellectual life, but it was Lorenzo who would later be deemed to have been the greatest patron.

A young Cosimo is portrayed by Richard Madden in the television series Medici: From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

This article is about the founder of the Medici dynasty.